A type of chemotherapy called a cytotoxic antibiotic which is gen intravenously.
A protein which constitutes more than half of the blood's serum. Where amyloid has affected the kidney's filtration system albumin may pass into the urine.
A chemotherapeutic drug such as melphalan or cyclophosphamide. Alkylating refers to the way in which these drugs cross-link the DNA of myeloma cells and block cell division.
A procedure in which stem cells or bone marrow from a compatible tissue typed donor (usually a sibling) are collected, stored and given to the patient after high-dose chemotherapy treatment.
A condition in which myeloma light chains (Bence Jones proteins) are deposited in tissues and organs throughout the body. This occurs more commonly with lambda versus kappa Bence Jones proteins. In patients with amyloidosis, the light chain proteins bind to certain tissues such as heart, nerves and kidney rather than being excreted out of the body through the kidneys.
A below-normal number of red blood cells in the blood. This reduces the ability of the blood to supply oxygen to the body, causing fatigue and weakness.
Blood vessel formation, which usually accompanies the growth of malignant tissue, including myeloma.
Prevention of the formation of new blood vessels that supply the myeloma cells with oxygen and nutrition.
Drugs used to treat bacterial infection.
A protein produced by certain white blood cells (plasma cells) to fight infection and disease in the form of antigens such as bacteria, viruses, toxins, or tumours. Each antibody can bind only to a specific antigen. The purpose of this binding is to help destroy the antigen. Antibodies can work in several ways, depending on the nature of the antigen. Some antibodies disable antigens directly. Others make the antigen more vulnerable to destruction by other white blood cells.
Drugs to prevent or minimise nausea and vomiting.
Drugs to prevent or treat an infection caused by a fungus.
Having the properties of an antigen. Antigens are a vital component of the immune system.
Any substance that the body regards as foreign or potentially dangerous, which can be as diverse as bacteria and pollen grains, against which it produces an antibody.
Drugs to prevent or treat an infection caused by a virus.
A procedure in which stem cells are collected from the blood using a machine which separates them out, returning the remainder of the blood components to the patient / donor. As stem cells are within the white blood cell components it is also sometimes referred to as leukapheresis.
A normal cellular process involving a genetically programmed series of events leading to the death of a cell.
A potential new treatment for myeloma being looked at in the context of clinical studies.
The process of removing fluid or tissue, or both, from a specific area.
A procedure in which a patient's own stem cells are collected, stored and then given back following high- dose chemotherapy. This is the most common type of transplantation used in myeloma.